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Société François Villon

OEUVRES ET TRADUCTIONS
La Critique de Villon et de ses oeuvres
La Réception de Villon et de ses oeuvres
Le Monde de Villon (géographie, histoire, gens, objets & langue)
Vie littéraire en France à l'époque de Villon
Société François Villon, Bulletin
Forum
A number of interesting links to the BNF.


The Society for the History of Authorship, Reading & Publishing

The Society for the History of Authorship, Reading and Publishing was founded to create a global network for book historians working in a broad range of scholarly disciplines. Research addresses the composition, mediation, reception, survival, and transformation of written communication in material forms from marks on stone to new media. Perspectives range from the individual reader to the transnational communication network. With more than a thousand members in over forty countries, SHARP works in concert with affiliated academic organizations around the world to support the study of book history in all its forms.


The Bibliographical Society of America

The oldest scholarly society in North America dedicated to the study of books and manuscripts as physical objects


Humanities Text Initiative

The Humanities Text Initiative, a unit of the University of Michigan's Digital Library Production Service, has provided online access to full text resources since 1994. The Humanities Text Initiative (HTI) is an umbrella organization for the creation, delivery, and maintenance of electronic texts, as well as a mechanism for furthering the library community's capabilities in the area of online text.


Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Online Catalog

Numerous databases of photographs and prints at the Library of Congress


Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Online Catalog

Cabinet of American Illustration, Cartoon Drawings: Swann Collection of Caricature and Cartoon, Civil War Photographs Civil War Photographs, Drawings (Master),Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information Color Photographs, Fine Prints Fine Prints, Posters: Performing Arts Posters, Stereograph Cards Stereograph Cards, Daguerreotypes, Fenton Crimean War Photographs, Fine Prints: Japanese, pre-1915, Lomax Collection, Panoramic Photographs, Thesaurus For Graphic Materials, Van Vechten Collection, Wright Brothers Negatives, and much more.


Project Gutenberg

Project Gutenberg is the Internet's oldest producer of free electronic books (eBooks or etexts). Thanks to ibiblio, the Public's Library and Digital Archive, for hosting the main eBook distribution site.

The Official Project Gutenberg Web pages may be found at www.gutenberg.net. The official Web pages include award-winning information about Project Gutenberg, including how help create free eBooks and how to subscribe to the Project Gutenberg newsletter for announcements of each month's new eBooks and other happenings.


Book Gilt

Book meta–search engine

  • Responsive design. This means that BookGilt is designed to work brilliantly across desktop computers, tablets and phones.
  • No PODs. We filter out PODs by default.
  • Saved search preferences. BookGilt will remember your search preferences the next time you return.
  • Save lists. When you create a BookGilt account, you can save books you find to lists for future retrieval.
  • Want lists. You can maintain up to five wants and we'll search for those items every day for you, notifying you by email when we find a copy.

  • Swann Galleries

    Swann Galleries was founded in 1941 as an auction house specializing in Rare Books. Today they are the largest specialist rare book auctioneers in the world, and our business has expanded to encompass the Visual Arts.


    Printed Flower Gardens
    The Bookbindings of Margaret Armstrong

    The Bookbindings of Margaret Armstrong, 15 July - 31 October 2002. The Rotunda University of Virginia


    Omaha Indian Music

    Omaha Indian Music features traditional Omaha music from the 1890s and 1980s. From American Memory Historical Collections at the Library of Congress.


    The American Language Reprint Series

    The American Language Reprint (ALR) series aims to compile the various word-lists, vocabularies and phrase books which were collected in the early years of North American settlement. The series begins with the languages and dialects of the Eastern Woodlands, with a primary emphasis on the Eastern Algonquian and Iroquoian families. We hope to progressively extend the geographical scope of the project to form a comprehensive linguistic record of native North America prior to the advent of modern linguistics.


    Henry Rowe Schoolcraft

    Collection Summary Creator: Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe, 1793-1864 Title: Papers of Henry Rowe Schoolcraft 1788-1941 (bulk 1820-1856) Size: 25,000 items; 90 containers plus 1 oversize; 28 linear feet; 69 microfilm reels Repository: Manuscript Division, Library of Congress Abstract: Author, ethnologist, explorer, geologist, glass manufacturer, and Indian agent. Correspondence, journals, articles, books, manuscripts of magazines, poetry, speeches, government reports, Indian vocabularies, maps, drawings, and other papers reflecting Schoolcraft's career as a glass manufacturer, mineralogist on an exploring expedition in the Ozark Mountains, geologist on the Cass expedition to the Northwest Territory, leader of expeditions throughout the Great Lakes region, member of Michigan's legislative council, Indian agent, superintendent of Indian affairs for Michigan, ethnologist, and author of works concerning the Iroquois of New York state and other Indians of North America.


    Library of Congress Finding Aid

    The Library now provides an outline view of encoded finding aids for all Library divisions from its EAD search page. This view using HTML frames is the default option for finding aids on the search page because of the highly contextual nature of these documents, which are best understood when the table of contents is available on-screen at all times. The use of frames also permits large documents to be "chunked", which allows the browser to retrieve only the portion of the finding aid needed at the time. A table of contents list links to a view which displays a navigation frame with individual sections of the finding aid; the sections may be searched and printed separately. This view will load quickly.


    The Lucile Project

    The Lucile project is an attempt to recover the publishing history of a single 19th century book. Owen Meredith's Lucile was first published in 1860, by Chapman & Hall in England and as a Ticknor & Fields "Blue & Gold" in the United States. It was reviewed in the New York Times, as well as other newspapers and magazines. In England, it saw only a handful of editions over the next 40 years. In the United States, however, it remained in print until 1938, last offered as a surviving title in Burt's Home Library remaindered to Blue Ribbon Books in 1936. It went out of print in 1938.


    Renaissance Dante in Print (1472-1629)

    THIS EXHIBITION presents Renaissance editions of Dante's Divine Comedy from the John A. Zahm, C.S.C., Dante Collection at the University of Notre Dame, together with selected treasures from The Newberry Library. The Zahm collection ranks among the top Dante collections in North America. Purchased for the most part by Zahm in 1902 from the Italian Dantophile Giulio Acquaticci, the 15th- and 16th- century imprints presented here form the heart of Zahm's collection, which totals nearly 3,000 volumes, including rare editions and critical studies from the Renaissance to the present. The nine incunable editions and nearly complete series of 16th-century imprints featured in this exhibit constitute essential primary sources for both the history of Dante's reception during the Renaissance and the early history of the printed book.


    Zamora 80

    In 1945 the Zamorano Club published The Zamorano 80: A Selection of Distinguished California Books Made by Members of the Zamorano Club. The criterion for inclusion was that a selection above all should be distinguished, and that rarity and importance would be secondary. Yet, over time, it appears that the eighty books selected are both distinguished and important, and a number of them are definitely rare. The Club's goal was to choose those books considered cornerstones of a serious collection of Californiana. The books listed in The Zamorano 80 for the most part have withstood the test of time.


    Representative Poetry Online

    Representative Poetry Online, version 3.0, includes 3,162 English poems by 500 poets from Caedmon, in the Old English period, to the work of living poets today. It is based on Representative Poetry, established by Professor W. J. Alexander of University College, University of Toronto, in 1912 (one of the first books published by the University of Toronto Press), and used in the English Department at the University until the late 1960s.


    University of Toronto English Library

    UTEL (the University of Toronto English Library) is the main undergraduate and graduate site for students and faculty of the Department of English. It was created in 1996 with funds from a grant to Prof. Ian Lancashire from the Provost's Information Technology Courseware Development Fund and with support from the Department of English, chaired by Prof. T. H. Adamowski. The prototype UTEL site was set up on the University of Toronto Library Web server in 1993-94 to make available the Department of English teaching anthology Representative Poetry On-line.


    TennesseeBob's Famous French Links

    TennesseeBob's Famous French Links rassemble depuis 1995 une vaste webliothèque des ressources francophones liées. Pour la plupart, les soixante-dix-neuf pages du site qui sont sur nos serveurs forment des carrefours de voies documentaires. Nos sites carrefour mènent à des millions de pages de textes littéraires, des centaines de cours et leçons complètes en langue française, des dictionnaires, et des milliards d'activités de grammaire. Je laisse aux autres le soin d'en faire de belles petites bibliothèques savantes et des sites à but unique.


    Société Internationale de l'étude de Jeanne d'Arc

    The International Joan of Arc Society / Société Internationale de l'étude de Jeanne d'Arc is a WWW repository of scholarly and pedagogic information about Joan of Arc collected by faculty, independent scholars, and students. 


    The Center for Book Arts

    The Center for Book Arts, a not-for-profit organization founded in 1974, offers over 100 classes and workshops in bookbinding, letterpress printing, paper marbling, typography, and related fields. The Center has mounted over 140 exhibitions during the last 25 years.


    Editorial Freelancers Association

    The Editorial Freelancers Association is a national, nonprofit, professional organization of self-employed workers in the publishing and communications industries. Members are editors, writers, indexers, proofreaders, researchers, desktop publishers, translators, and others who offer a broad range of skills and specialties.


    BANNED BOOKS ONLINE

    Welcome to this special exhibit of books that have been the objects of censorship or censorship attempts. The books featured here, ranging from Ulysses to Little Red Riding Hood, have been selected from the indexes of The Online Books Page. (See that page for over 20,000 more online books!)


    The Aberdeen Bestiary

    The Aberdeen Bestiary (Aberdeen University Library MS 24) is considered to be one of the best examples of its type. The manuscript, written and illuminated in England around 1200, is of added interest since it contains notes, sketches and other evidence of the way it was designed and executed.


    The digital Jane Austen Exhibit

    Maureen E. Mulvihill has an excellent review, “Captured by Jane,” of the recent Jane Austen exhibit at the Morgan Library recently posted in the Jane Austen Centre online magazine.


    Bodleian Library, Western manuscripts to c. 1500

    This is the home page for pre-c. 1500 western manuscripts, which form one part of the Department of Special Collections and Western Manuscripts at the Bodleian Library;


    Early Manuscripts at Oxford University

    Early Manuscripts at Oxford University Digital facsimiles of complete manuscripts, scanned directly from the originals


    Digital Beowulf

    This online Guide is the complete 'Help' facility for the Electronic Beowulf, a set of 2 CD-ROMs published by British Library Publications and the University of Michigan Press. Electronic Beowulf: A Guide The Electronic Beowulf is an image-based edition of Beowulf, the great Old English poem surviving in the British Library in a composite codex known as Cotton Vitellius A. xv.


    Léonie Adams

    Léonie Adams at The Academy of American Poets.


    American Bamboo Society

    "The ABS was formed in 1979 and today we have over 1,400 members living throughout the U.S. and in 37 other countries. The ABS issues a bimonthly Magazine and the Journal to disseminate information about the use, care, propagation and beauty of bamboo."


    Poems relating to the American Revolution / Philip Freneau

    Freneau, Philip Morin, 1752-1832 Poems Relating to the American Revolution Philip Freneau with an introductory memoir and notes by Evert A. Duyckinck W.J. Widdleton New York 1865


    "Woman, the New Factor in Economics." by Rev. Augusta Cooper Bristol. from The Congress of Women: Held in the Woman's Building, World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, U. S. A., 1893.. Chicago, ILL: Monarch Book Company, 1894. pp. pp. 80-86. at The Celebration of Women Writers, University of Pennsylvania Digital Library

    "Rev. Augusta Cooper Bristol is a native of New Hampshire. She was born April 17,1835. Her parents were Otis Cooper and Hannah (Powers) Cooper. In 1866 she married Louis Bristol, a lawyer of Connecticut. She is a woman of big brain, well stored with valuable information, and one of the most graceful and profound writers and speakers of the present day. Her principal literary works are a volume of poems and various published lectures, some of which have been translated into French. She is a member of no special church at present, but in faith is Unitarian, and not infrequently speaks from the pulpit. Her postoffice address is Vineland, N. Y." Augusta Bristol [1835-1910]


    Pendragon Press

    "With over 250 titles in print, Pendragon Press is a leader in the publication of musicological research, reference works, and studies of many aspects of musical life. With 27 series, ranging from Aesthetics to the history of theory, to vocal music, we have been servicing the musicological community for over 30 years, and, with the help of our friends, hope to continue for another 30. "


    19th Century Schoolbooks

    19th Century Schoolbooks"The Nietz Old Textbook Collection is one of several well-known collections of 19th Century schoolbooks in the United States. Among the 16,000 volumes are many titles that are rarely held and have not yet been reproduced in microform collections or reprint editions. The collection is used by Pitt faculty and students as well as visiting scholars from other colleges and universities. The ULS received two U.S. Higher Education Act Title IIC grants (1985-1987) to catalog the original collection."


    Library of Congress Rare Books and Special Collections: An Illustrated Guide

    Library of Congress Rare Books and Special Collections: Table of Contents; Introduction (Larry Sullivan Chief, Rare Book and Special Collections Division); American History; American Literature; Europe; Book Arts; The Illustrated Book; List of Selected Special Collections; Concordance of Images (Includes information on how to order copies of the images).


    The Cambridge History of English and American Literature: An Encyclopedia in Eighteen Volumes

    "Considered the most important work of literary history and criticism ever published, the Cambridge History contains over 303 chapters and 11,000 pages, with essay topics ranging from poetry, fiction, drama and essays to history, theology and political writing. The set encompasses a wide selection of writing on orators, humorists, poets, newspaper columnists, religious leaders, economists, Native Americans, song writers, and even non-English writing, such as Yiddish and Creole."


    Bobcat

    "NYU Bobst Library, NYU Institute of Fine Arts, NYU Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, NYU Real Estate Institute, The New-York Historical Society, New York School of Interior Design, Cooper Union, New School University, Parsons School of Design, Mannes College of Music."


    Harvard Libraries

    Public Access to the Hollis Catalog


    New York Public Library

    The New York Public Library has been an essential provider of free books, information, ideas, and education for all New Yorkers for more than 100 years. Founded in 1895, NYPL is the nation’s largest public library system, featuring a unique combination of 88 neighborhood branches and four scholarly research centers, bringing together an extraordinary richness of resources and opportunities available to all.


    The Sarah Orne Jewett Text Project

    The Sarah Orne Jewett Text Project is an attempt to make all of Jewett's published writings available on the World Wide Web in reliable, annotated editions. —Terry Heller, Coe College Department of English


    Selected Works of Annie Adams Fields

    This site is dedicated to reprinting the works of Annie Adams Fields in accessible annotated editions. It was begun as a "spin-off" from the Sarah Orne Jewett Text Project.—by Terry Heller Coe College


    The English Server

    The EServer (founded in 1990 at Carnegie Mellon as the English Server), attempts to provide an alternative niche for quality work, particularly writings in the arts and humanities. Now based at Iowa State University, we offer fifty collections on such diverse topics as art, architecture, race, Internet studies, sexuality, drama, design, multimedia, and current social issues. In addition to short and longer written works, we publish hypertext and streaming audio and video recordings. Our collections grow as increased membership has new works to publish with us, and as we teach new members how to publish works to the Web and to the more than two million readers who visit our site per month. According to Alexa, this makes us the most popular arts and humanities website in the world.


    New Listings—Online Books Page

    “This page lists the titles of on-line books that have recently been added to our index, or whose entries have been recently revised. For a full list of available books, try the main on-line books page.


    The Rowley Poems by Thomas Chatterton

    “Most people know the legend of Thomas Chatterton -- brilliant poet who failed to make a living, starved himself to send expensive presents to his family, and died by his own hand at seventeen -- much better than his poems. Like all legends, it is partial and exaggerated, but was a powerful influence on the Romantic movement and long after. The painting "The Death of Chatterton" by Henry Wallis epitomises this reputation. His fame rests, apart from this almost unbearably romantic life story, on his "Rowley Poems". These he wrote in a sham Middle English dialect, and passed off as the work of Thomas Rowley, a priest of Bristol in the fifteenth century, and some of his friends. The imposture was quickly detected (though some continued to believe in him for many years), but they were published in a collected edition after his death and were popular and much admired by the Romantic poets, especially Wordsworth, Shelley, and Keats, who dedicated "Endymion" to the memory of Thomas Chatterton.”


    Research Guides to the New York Public Library

    The Humanities and Social Sciences Library maintains a series of Research Guides to assist readers as they begin their exploration of the Library's vast collections. These guides introduce the researcher to the Library's collections, to the online catalogs and electronic resources, and to recommended reference sources. The guides also note valuable resources available on the World Wide Web, and refer readers to other institutions with strong collections in the subject.


    Elizabeth Nesbit Room Chapbook Collection at the University of Pittsburgh

    “The Elizabeth Nesbitt Room is located in the Information Sciences Library at the University of Pittsburgh and houses several special collections related to the history of children and their books and media. The volumes in this collection include more than 12,000 books and magazine titles of interest dating from the 1600's through today.”


    Caxton‘s Chaucer at the British Library

    “On this site you will find William Caxton’s two editions of Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales, probably printed in 1476 and 1483. The originals are both in the British Library.”
    Another interface at De Montfort University edited by Barbara Bordalejo, Canterbury Tales Project.
    Other links to Chaucer.


    Renascence Editions

    An Online Repository of Works Printed in English Between the Years 1477 and 1799.
    “Renascence Editions is an effort to make available online works printed in English between the years 1477 (when Caxton began printing) and 1799. These texts have been produced with care and attention, but are not represented by the publisher as scholarly editions in the peer-reviewed sense. They are made available to the public for nonprofit purposes only. The publisher and general editor is Richard Bear at the University of Oregon. If you would like to edit a text in this series, send email to the Publisher.”


    Pseudodoxia Epidemica:
    OR,
    ENQUIRIES
    Into very many Received
    Tenents
    And commonly presumed
    Truths.


    By Thomas Brown Knight, M. D.
    Based on The Sixth and Last Edition of 1672


    Thomas Brown’s Vulgar Errors treats the opposite of orthodoxy, pseudodoxy. An intelligent and readable presentation of an amusing classic.


    Zippy

    Zippy the Pinhead by Bill Griffith


    Words Without Borders

    "Words Without Borders undertakes to promote international communication through translation of the world's best writing--selected and translated by a distinguished group of writers, translators, and publishing professionals--and publishing and promoting these works (or excerpts) on the web. We also serve as an advocacy organization for literature in translation, producing events that feature the work of foreign writers and connecting these writers to universities and to print and broadcast media."


    An excellent report by Maureen Mulvihill of the auction of rare books and manuscripts from the estate of Paula Peyraud

    The Paula Peyraud Collection: Samuel Johnson & Women Writers in Georgian Society. An Auction Report by Maureen E. Mulvihill as published in Eighteenth-Century Studies, Fall 2009, with 8 images and a list of selected buyers, prices & new locations of the Peyraud properties.
    A pdf of the published report may be downloaded here: http://www.ilab.org/download.php?object=documentation&id=81
    Bloomsbury Auctions: The Paul Peyraud Collection, Wednesday, 6 May 2009 Bookplate from Peyraud copy of Frances Burney’s <i>Cecilia</i>
    ‘DARK LADY’ OF RARE BOOK COLLECTORS, PAULA FENTRESS PEYRAUD (CHAPPAQUA, NY, 1947 ~ 2008). Peyraud Collection Auction, May 2009, Bloomsbury Auctions N.Y. 483 Lots (books, manuscripts, images). Sales total: $1.6 million, including premium. Photograph, Margie Van Dyke. Bookplate from Peyraud copy of Frances Burney’s Cecilia, (lot 218, buyer McGill University). Bookplate bears inscribed initials (“FCP - EKP”), being the collector’s grandparents Frank C. Peyraud & Elizabeth Krysler Peyraud, both visual artists (see “Peyraud,” Benezit, vol. 10, 2006 edition).


    Simms, William Gilmore (1806-1870)

    William Gilmore Simms: Novelist, Poet, Editor, Biographer, Historian, Orator, Essayist, Letter Writer. Active 1825-1870 in USA, North America—The Literary Encyclopedia


    Juan M. Blanes

    A short biography of the painter Juan M. Blades from La Red Académica Uruguaya (RAU) with reproductions from the Librería Linardi y Risso.


    The Danish National Digital Sheet Music Archive

    digital facsimiles of printed and manuscript music. Selected works from the Music Collections are being re-published in digital form in order to provide internet access to the collections of the Royal Library. Both manuscripts and printed music have been included: some are published expressly for printing, others are primarily intended for study. Most of the digitized scores can be seached and browsed in REX, while other materials are grouped in special databases and according to subjects. Questions about the digital music collection may be directed to:


    Giovanni Bottesini

    Brian Scoggins's Bottesini Society site. All about the Brazilian double bassist and composer.


    Francis Hopkinson (1737-1791)

    “Throughout his political career Hopkinson wrote poetry and satire on the politically derisive issues of the day. He penned a popular and humorous work on the 1787 Constitutional Convention. He was also an accomplished harpsichordist and composer. His work "My Days Have Been So Wondrous Free," set to the words of Thomas Parnell's "Love and Innocence," is the first extant secular song by a native American composer.”


    Neue Mozart-Ausgabe / Digital Mozart Edition in cooperation with the Packard Institute

    “The purpose of this web site operated by the Internationale Stiftung Mozarteum in cooperation with the Packard Humanities Institute is to make Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's musical compositions widely and conveniently accessible to the public, for personal study and for educational and classroom use. The digitized version offers the musical text and the critical commentaries of the entire Neue Mozart-Ausgabe, edited by the Internationale Stiftung Mozart in cooperation with the Mozart cities of Augsburg, Salzburg, and Vienna.”


    John Cage

    The John Cage Trust was established in 1993 as a not-for-profit institution whose mission is to gather together, organize, preserve, disseminate, and generally further the work of the late American composer, John Cage. Its founding trustees were Merce Cunningham, Artistic Director of the Cunningham Dance Company, Anne d'Harnoncourt, Director of the Philadelphia Museum, and David Vaughan, Archivist of the Cunningham Dance Foundation, all long-time Cage friends and associates. Laura Kuhn, who from 1986 to 1992 worked directly with John Cage, serves as both a founding trustee and ongoing Executive Director. In 2008, Anne d'Harnoncourt was replaced by Margarete Roeder, long-time gallerist to both Cage and Cunningham; in 2009, Merce Cunningham was replaced by Melissa Harris, editor-in-chief of Aperture.


    Thumbprints of Ephelia

    Thumbprints of Ephelia (Lady Mary Villiers): The End of an Enigma in Restoration Attribution. Text, Image, Sound. With a first ‘Key’ to ‘Female Poems . . . by Ephelia’ (1679). by Maureen E. Mulvihill (Princeton Research Forum, Princeton, N.J.); Hosted by ReSoundings (Millersville University, Pa.; 2001, with annual updates).

    Mary Villiers, Duchess of Richmond

    Lady Mary Villiers, when as Mary, Lady Stuart, Duchess of Richmond & Lennox, with her dwarf, Anne Shepherd Gibson. By Sir Anthony Van Dyck, Court Painter for Charles I. London, circa 1636. Mulvihill reads this famous gloves-and-dwarf portrait of Duchess Mary as ingeniously encoded text for the Duchess’s sly method of manuscript transmission.


    WALDEINSAMKEIT

    I do not count the hours I spend
    In wandering by the sea;
    The forest is my loyal friend,
    Like God it useth me.
    
    In plains that room for shadows make
    Of skirting hills to lie,
    Bound in by streams which give and take
    Their colors from the sky;
    
    Or on the mountain-crest sublime,
    Or down the oaken glade,
    O what have I to do with time?
    For this the day was made.
    
    Cities of mortals woe-begone
    Fantastic care derides,
    But in the serious landscape lone
    Stern benefit abides.
    
    Sheen will tarnish, honey cloy,
    And merry is only a mask of sad,
    But, sober on a fund of joy,
    The woods at heart are glad.
    
    There the great Planter plants
    Of fruitful worlds the grain,
    And with a million spells enchants
    The souls that walk in pain.
    
    Still on the seeds of all he made
    The rose of beauty burns;
    Through times that wear and forms that fade,
    Immortal youth returns.
    
    The black ducks mounting from the lake,
    The pigeon in the pines,
    The bittern's boom, a desert make
    Which no false art refines.
    
    Down in yon watery nook,
    Where bearded mists divide,
    The gray old gods whom Chaos knew,
    The sires of Nature, hide.
    
    Aloft, in secret veins of air,
    Blows the sweet breath of song,
    O, few to scale those uplands dare,
    Though they to all belong!
    
    See thou bring not to field or stone
    The fancies found in books;
    Leave authors' eyes, and fetch your own,
    To brave the landscape's looks.
    
    Oblivion here thy wisdom is,
    Thy thrift, the sleep of cares;
    For a proud idleness like this
    Crowns all thy mean affairs.
    Ralph Waldo Emerson [1803-1882]